The History of Artificial Intelligence


This wonderful piece of enlightenment has been 
brought to you byEdu Morales and Crystal Harris
other known as: STS.001's Team "Lucky Number" 
Seven

By some bizzare twist of fate,  (or because   some teacher  made  you    come  
here) you've arrived at a website titled,  "The History of  Artificial  Intelligence." 

So what exactly is Artificiall Intelligence? In a sentence,  artificial   intelligence 
is the field   of   science  and engineering  concerned   with  making  intelligent  machines. According  to  Joseph  Weizenbaum  the  ultimate  goal  of  artificial   intelligence is "nothing  less  than to build a machine on  the  model  of  man, a 
robot that is to have its childhood,  to  lean language  as  a child does, to gain 
its knowledge of the work  by  sensing  the world through its  own  organs and  ultimately  to  contemplate  the whole  domain  of human thought."
1

WWII, in the way that war has the ability to spark technological advances, 
helped to make the field of artificial intelligence reality. 
Computers like Colossus were  designed    to  break   the  codes  generated by  
the Germans's  Enigma.  Even  after  the  war,  the computer  race continued,  
with machines   like  ENIAC and Japan's Fifth Generation Project. 

Bigger and faster computers were being developed, as well  as new techniques 
for programming these new computers. Computer companies and college AI 
labs  were being built and money was being made and lost.

This website deals primarily with the evolution of AI research, and social impact 
of AI applications. There is quite a bit to be learned about AI and the many men  and women involved who helped to shape AI into what it is today. It is our hope  that this website will answer some of your questions about AI  and  encourage  you  to learn even more about this new science of Artificial Intelligence.

Table of Contents:
No good book/website is complete without a Table 
of Contents.
Time Line:
A historical timeline of important AI events
The People of AI:
Learn about some of the most  famous people  of AI.
Social, Moral, and Philosophical Issues
:Learn about the  issues surrounding 
AI, its progress, limitations, and morality.
The Evolution of AI: Learn about how AI programs evolved from simple 
calculating machines to master chess players.
Applications of AI:
Learn about the various AI programs,  how  they 
worked and what they were used for.
Frequently Asked Questions
Got  a question burning  a  hole in 
your pocket? Perhaps the answer is here.
Related Links:
Some links to other web sites that contain information 
about AI
Bibliography:
Just so we don't get arrested for plagerism,  get  kicked  
out  of school and be forced to travel to highschools  across  the  country  
warning students about the dangers of plagerism, we've included a 
bibliography.

Timelin
Here we've provided a timeline of some important  events  in the  history  of  
artificial intelligence. Some of the events here are linked to more information 
to be found on our website. To find out more just  click  on the link you wish 
to follow.

1917 Karel Capek coins the term 'Robot' (in czech 'robot' means 'worker'), 
but the 1923 English translation retained the original word.)
 
1928 John von Neumann's develops minimax theorem (later used in game 
playing programs)
 
1940
First electronic computers
developed in US, UK and German
1943 McCulloch and Pitts propose  neural-network  architectures 
for intelligence
1946
Turing's ACE
John von Neumann publishes EDVAC paper on the stored program 
computer.J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchley build "ENIAC", the 
first electronic programmable digital computer.

1950

Alan Turing: "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"

1953

Claude Shannon gives Minsky and McCarthy summer 
jobs  at  Bell Labs

1955

Newell, Simon and Shaw develop "IPL-11", first AI language
1956
Rockefeller  funds  McCarthy &  Minsky's AI  conference 
at DartmouthCIA funds GAT machine-translation project
Newell, Shaw, and  Simon  develop   The Logic Theorist

1957

Newell, Shaw, and Simon's develop the General Problem 
Solver (GPS)

1958

McCarthy introduces LISP (at MIT)

1959

McCarthy & Minsky establish MIT AI Lab
Rosenblatt introduces PerceptronSamuel's checkers 
program wins games  against  best  human  players
1962
First industrial robots
McCarthy moves to Stanford
1963
McCarthy founds Stanford AI Lab
Minsky's "Steps Towards Artificial Intelligence" publised
U.S. government grants 2.2 million dollar grant  to  MIT 
to reearch Machine-Aided Cognition (artificial intelligence). 
The grant came from DARPA to ensure that the US would 
stay ahead of the Soviet Union in technological advancements.

1964

Daniel Bobrow's Student solves high school  algebra  work 
problems
1965
Simon predicts "by 1985 machines will be capable of doing 
any work a man can do"

1966

Weizenbaum and Colby create Eliza

1967

Greenblatt's MacHack defeats Hubert Dreyfus at chess
1969
Minsky & Papert's "Perceptrons" (limits of single-layer neural 
networks) kills funding for neural net research
Kubrick's "2001" introduces HAL and AI to a  mass  audience
Turing's "Intelligent Machinery" published
1970
Terry Winograd's Shrldu developed
Colmerauer      creates     PROLOG
1972
DARPA cancels  funding   for   robotics  at  Stanford
Hubert Dreyfus publishes "What Computers Can't Do"
1973
Lighthill report kills AI funding in UK
LOGO funding scandal:  Minsky &  Papert   
forced to 
turn leave MIT's AI la
1974
Edward Shortliffe's thesis on Mycin
Minsky reifies the 'frame'
First computer-controlled robot

1975

DARPA launche s image   understanding  funding  program.
1976
DARPA cancels funding for speech understanding research
Greenblatt creates first LISP machine, "CONS"
Doug Lenat's AM (Automated Mathematician)
Kurzweil introduces reading machine

1978

Patrick Hayes' "Naive Physics Manifesto"
1979
Journal of American Medical Assoc. says that Mycin is 
as good as medical experts


1980


First AAAI conference held (at Stanford)

1981

Kazuhiro Fuchi announces Japanese Fifth Generation Project
1982
John Hopfield resuscitates neural nets
Publications of British government's "Alvey Report" on advanced information technology, leading to boost in AI (Expert Systems) being used in industry.
1983
DARPA's Strategic Computing Initiative commits $600 million over 5 yrs
Feigenbaum and McCorduck publish "The Fifth Generation"

1984

Austin AAAI conference launches AI into financial spotlight
1985
GM and Campbell's Soup find expert systems don't need LISP machines
Kawasaki robot kills Japanese mechanic during malfunction

1987

"AI Winter" sets in (Lisp-machine market saturated)

1988

AI revenues reach $1 billion
The 386 chip brings PC speeds into competition with LISP machines
Minsky and Papert publish revised edition of "Perceptrons"
1992
Japanese Fifth Generation Project ends with a whimper
Japanese Real World Computing Project begins with a big-money bang

Related Links

Online Examples of AI programs
Eliza: the original
Dr. Webowitz, WWW Quack Psychiatwist:  A humorous WWW realization of Eliza, the pseudo-artificially intelligentprogram.
Bob: Bob is an artificial intelligence program which handles a  conversation  with 
the user in Natural language.
Web Hal: Web Hal has the ability to learn from you and it trys to chat intelligently with you.
DEEP BLUE:  The   first   computer   chess   programto ever beat a grand  master.

Other Online AI resources
How to pass the Turing Test by cheating
The Alan Turing Internet Scrapbook:     Find  out  about  Alan   Turing's  early  life.
The Alan Turing Homepage: Find out about Alan Turing's life and  accomplishments. This site also contains an Alan Turing Scrapbook.
The History Computing: This site has information on the first computers and links to other Computing History websites
The Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT: To find out about all the  cutting edge innovations occuring at MIT


Nasa and Department of Defense Sites
NASA: Intelligent Mechanisms Group
NAVY: Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence
ARMY: Strategic and Advanced Computing Center (SACC)


Our Classmates' Artificial Intelligence Websites
Team 5 : Artificial Intelligence
Team 6 : Artificial Intelligencehttp://web.mit.edu/STS001/www/Team8/
Team 8
:Early Computing Devices: 4 Case Studieshttp://web.mit.edu/STS001/www/Team9/team9page1.htm
Team 9
:History of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine


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